Commercial Rockets

SHÉNZHŌU (神舟) — China, 2003

This is basically a copy of the Soyuz, only with a little more room in every dimension, and a lengthened cylindrical orbital module which bumps the habitable space up to 14 cubic meters, and the mass to eight tons. In some versions, the orbital module can detach and move autonomously, and be docked with again on a second flight. The descent module remains Soyuz-like, and seats three “taikonauts”. It’s only made a total of six crewed flights, but this may change now that China has launched its own little space station, and is now building a much bigger one (which will include a good-sized orbital telescope).

Unlike the Long March rocket, the name Shenzhou is not usually translated when given in English. It can be translated as “heavenly vessel” — a lot of their space stuff uses the “shén” root word, which in other contexts might translate more as “divine” or “spirit”, or even “magic”. The name shénzhōu happens to be homophonic with an ancient name for China itself, 神州, which meant “divine state” or “divine land”. (Zhōu meaning boat or craft and zhōu meaning territory or region are pronounced the same in Han but written differently, as is the common surname derived from the ancient Zhōu dynasty, and the word for congee porridge — four different written characters.)