Commercial Rockets

ASTRA — USA, 2021

While most New Space ventures try to drum up as much hype as possible, this one has tried to keep its doings as far out of the public eye as it can. For the first three years its hiring page on LinkedIn only said “Stealth Space Company”. It was reported that the actual name of the company is Ventions LLC, but this turns out to have been a past venture by one of the founders, Adam London. (The other founder is Chris Kemp, who is mainly a software entrepreneur but has held a post at NASA. He’s the CEO.) It was also widely reported that the company’s current name is now ASTRA Space, this being short for Atmospheric and Space Technology Research Associates... but this is false. That is a separate unrelated company, with different people, a different location, and different specialties. And note also that neither of them is to be confused with Ad Astra Rocket Company, which is working on ion propulsion and the microwave-powered VASIMR engine. I’m starting to think that once they go public, it would be a prudent idea to change the company’s name to something less overloaded than “Astra” is. It doesn’t help that the rocket itself has no official name yet, so the company name is the only thing we can call it. They just designate their current design with a version number, such as “Rocket 3.1”.

While keeping publicity to a minimum, they attempted two suborbital launches from Alaska. These apparently consisted of test flights of their first stage with a dummy second stage, and neither of them managed to get clear of the spaceport grounds before falling back. Once they felt ready to attempt orbit, they went a bit more public. Unfortunately that attempt failed — they scrubbed a minute before launch, and then while pumping the fuel out, problems cascaded and the rocket was lost in a fire. This sent them back to the shop for months, after which they managed to get part way through the first stage burn before going off course and being forced to self-destruct, again failing to clear the spaceport grounds.

They build their rockets in Alameda, at the former Navy base there. They picked the spot because one of the old buildings is set up for testing engines indoors. This lets them iterate rapidly without having to schlep parts between a high-tech hub and an empty desert for testing, as most rocket companies need to do. The result is that they hoped to be setting a speed record for how quickly a small rocket startup could actually reach orbit, but that hope was dashed.

What they are working on is an orbital rocket which will be smaller than the Electron, with a 200 kilogram payload capacity. This small size was confirmed by paparazzi photos which have shown their booster being toted around with a forklift. The idea is to make it cheap, simple, and mass-producible, with no carbon composite or 3D printing, so once they have it working, they can quickly ramp up to producing and launching a rocket a day, if sufficient demand exists (which it probably won’t for many many years). They regard the Electron as over-engineered, and are hoping that their aluminum rocket will only cost a third as much, even in small production volumes. Once they start making them in bulk, there’s talk of bringing the cost down to six digits.

When their second test flight experienced a Rapid Unplanned Disassembly shortly after liftoff, we heard that the booster uses five engines... all of which failed together, apparently, due to a fire that destroyed the wiring. Even after they’ve emerged from stealth, some of our best further technical detail came from information released by NASA about R&D payments made to the company. These describe particular development tasks which include a kerosene-burning engine with electric pumps, similar to the Electron’s Rutherford engine, but apparently of lower performance. They also mention work on thrusters for satellites, probes, and interplanetary landers. Yep, they’re apparently involved peripherally in developing sample-return probes for the moon or even for Mars.

Anyway, the rocket is a stubby two-stage design in which the booster has five engines with rather small bells, and the second stage appears to be very small — the interstage and fairing just about swallow it from both ends, leaving us with (as yet) no picture at all of it out in the open on its own. Apparently it consists of two ellipsoidal tanks with only a narrow band of cylindrical hull on the upper one. It weighs maybe one ton fully fueled. The fairing is small enough that each half can be easily lifted into place by one guy. The enclosed payload volume looks like maybe one cubic meter. It appears that the tapered interstage comes off in halves, like the fairing. Eventually we we learned that the booster engine is named “Delphin” and the upper stage one is called “Aether”. The Aether is pressure-fed.

They are building this little rocket in respose to the Pentagon’s desire for a rapidly responsive launch capability, because the military services are tired of needing to schedule launches months in advance. Astra tried to get a $12 million prize from DARPA if they could make a launch with only a few weeks notice, and then a second launch within a few weeks after that. The prize also required that they do not require a fixed launchpad. They say they’ve got portable launching gear that they can set up on any flat piece of concrete, and the rocket itself can be transported in a shipping container. The DARPA prize expired, but they’ve already got about fifteen flights booked, with rockets for them already semi-assembled. They mean to transition quickly into outright mass production of these babies.&ensp:They also want to start building satellite buses, and have bought up a small outfit that makes ion engines. And they’ve gone public.

But first the rocket has to work. With the fourth test flight, they finally reached space and nearly reached orbit, which meant their goal of reaching orbit in three tries looked likely. All they needed to do was fix a mixture issue that made the upper stage run out of fuel with lox left over. But flight attempt five — the first with a real payload — was a step backwards, with the fuel hose spilling propellant and starting a fire, which made the rocket lose an engine, so it ended up wallowing sideways before starting to gain altitude. At least they got it over the ocean, with the majority of the fuel gone, before aborting. In November 2021 they finally had success with flight six, but it had no satellite, only an instrument package which stayed attached to the upper stage in order to monitor it. Maybe soon they will put up an actual satellite.

I hope they make it; they’re local to my area, and it would be great if launches could be done as inexpensively as they’re aiming for. But maybe orbital launching just doesn’t work if you’re this cheap. Investors and analysts have disparaged them for thinking they could use non-aerospace-grade parts, and for unrealistic market expectations (though the latter is something you will find in every small rocket company).

But wait, what are they doing now? They just signed a deal with Firefly to license their Reaver engines and build them in their Alameda factory. This was signed shortly after both companies had test launches fail due to one booster engine quitting early. I don’t see what use Astra has for a larger engine with about the same level of reliability as the engine they’re already using. News stories are mentioning a possible Astra rocket with two Reavers in place of five Delphins, without making it any bigger, but I don’t know if that’s just speculation or is an actual plan. If it is something they plan to try, I do not see the point of the change.

Astra Rocket: mass <10t, diam 1.2m, thrust 140 kN, imp unknown, type Mk, payload ~0.2t, cost hopefully <$5M/t to $10M/t, record 0/5/1 (or 0/1/5).